Electrical Characterization

Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP

© Fraunhofer CSP

The Fraunhofer CSP offers a wide range of characterization techniques for PV-materials and -systems. The electrical characterization of silicon materials, solar cells and mini-modules as well as thin films like TCO materials (transparent conductive oxides) with respect to their electrical properties constitutes the focal point of our activities. Among the physical properties that can be determined in our labs are: voltage-current-curves of solar cells and related solar cell parameters, minority carrier lifetime and recombination in silicon, and electrical parameters of thin layers.

Furthermore, we focus our activities on the performance of the solar cells or thin film absorber materials within a module. The measurement methods employed at Fraunhofer CSP are: 4-point-measurements, quasi steadystate photoconductance decay (QSSPC), micro-wave photoconductance decay (MWPCD), photo- and electroluminescence, determination of quantum efficiency, voltage-current-curves of solar cells and mini-modules as well as surface-photovoltage-measurements.In combination with micro-structural analysis methods, the electrical characterization yields important insights into the quality of the utilized material during all steps of the solar cell production process.

On this page:

Equipment

  • Injection-dependent carrier lifetime (Si-block, -wafer)
  • Carrier-lifetime mapping (Si-block, -wafer)
  • Conductivity measurements (four-point, eddy current)
  • position resolved electroluminescence (cells and mini-modules)
  • position resolved photoluminescence (si-blocks, -wafers, solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • position-resolved lock-in-thermographie (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • light-induced local currents LBIC (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • internal and external quantum efficiency (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • chracterization of passivation layers
  • doping profiles based on resistivity
  • current-voltage-curves and parameter extraction (solar-cells, mini-modules)
  • solar simulator

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Publications

  • Breitenstein, O.; Frühauf, F.; Turek, M.: Improved empirical method for calculating short circuit current density images of silicon solar cells from saturation current density images and vice versa, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 154, p. 99 (2016), dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.047

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  • Brammer, T.; Suthues, J.; Wetzel, J.; Lam, J.; Chong, E.; Wang, S.; Rostan, H.; Luka, T., Turek, M.: Modified AM1.5 spectra for inline measurement of cell-to-module effects by using an LED solar simulator, SNEC 9th International Photovoltaic Power Generation Conference and Exhibition, April 27-30th, 2015, Shanghai
  • Eiternick, S.; Kaule, F.; Zühlke, H.-U.; Kießling, Th.; Grimm, M.; Schoenfelder, S.; Turek, M.: High Quality Half-Cell Processing Using Thermal Laser Separation, Energy Procedia 77, pp. 340-345, (2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.048
  • Frühauf, F.; Turek, M.: Quantification of electroluminescence measurements on modules), Energy Procedia 77, pp. 63-68, (2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.010
  • Großer, S.; Eiternick, S.; Turek, M.: Non-Destructive Characterization and Microscopic Properties of Rear Contact Voids in PERC Cells, 31st EU PVSEC, Sept. 14 - 18, 2015, Hamburg (Germany)
  • Guo, S.; Schneider, J.; Lu, F.; Hanifi, H.; Turek, M.; Dyrba, M.; Peters, I. M.: Investigation of the short-circuit current increase for PV modules using halved silicon wafer solar cells, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 133 (2015) 240-247, doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.11.012
  • Luka, T.; Eiternick, S.; Frigge, S.; Hagendorf, Ch.; Mehlich, H.; Turek, M.:Investigation of Light Induced Degradation of Multi-Crystalline PERC Cells, Proceedings of the 31st EU PVSEC, Sept. 14-18, 2015, Hamburg (Germany), pp. 826-828, DOI: 10.4229/EUPVSEC20152015-2BV.8.12
  • Luka, T.; Eiternick, S.; Turek, M.: Rapid testing of external quantum efficiency using LED solar simulators, Energy Procedia 77, pp. 113-118, (2015) DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.018
  • Zuelhke, H.U.; Kießling, Th.; Kaufmann, K.; Bernhardt, N.; Turek, M.; Kaule, F.; Schoenfelder, S.; Bagdahn, J.; Lewke, D.: PV Cell Separation by Thermal Laser Separation, SNEC 9th International Photovoltaic Power Generation Conference and Exhibition, April 27-30th, 2015, Shanghai

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  • Eiternick, S.; Kaufmann, K.; Schneider, J.; Turek, M.: Loss Analysis for Laser Separated Solar Cells, Energy Procedia 55, pp. 326-330, (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.08.094
  • Ilse, K.; Tänzer, T.; Hagendorf, C.; Turek, M.: Geometrical correction factors for finite-size probe tips in microscopic four-point-probe resistivity measurements, J. Appl. Phys. 116, 224509 (2014), DOI: 10.1063/1.4903964
  • Luka, T.; Eiternick, S.; Turek, M.: Determination of the Current and Illumination Dependent Series Resistance Using LED Solar Simulators. 29th EU PVSEC, Sept. 22 - 26, 2014, Amsterdam (Netherlands), p 93 - 95, DOI: 10.4229/EUPVSEC20142014-1BV.6.10
  • Popescu, L.M.; Schneider, A.; Wefringhaus, E.; Krümberg, J.; Reinke, D.; Turek, M.; Eiternick, S.; Muench, S.; Wende, L.: Round Robin Analysis of IV Data for CZ and mc-Si Solar Cells: Comparison of Results from Institute and Industry Partners within FutureFab Project. Proceedings of the 29th EUPVSEC, 22 - 26 Sept, 2014, Amsterdam (Netherlands), p 3374 - 3377, DOI: 10.4229/EUPVSEC20142014-5DV.3.24
  • Schneider, J.; Schönfelder, S.; Dietrich, S.; Turek, M.: Solar Module with Half Size Solar Cells. Proceedings of the 29th EU PVSEC, Sept. 22 - 26, 2014, Amsterdam (Netherlands), p 185 - 189, DOI: 10.4229/EUPVSEC20142014-1BV.6.48 
  • Schneider, J.; Turek, M.; Dyrba, M.; Baumann, I.; Koll, B.; Booz, T.: Combined Effect of Light Harvesting Strings, Anti-Reflective Coating, Thin Glass and High UV Transmission Encapsulant to Reduce Optical Losses in Solar Modules, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 22, 830 (2014), onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pip.2470/abstract.
  • Turek, M.: Current and illumination dependent series resistance of solar cells, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 144503 (2014). dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4871017.
  • Turek, M.; Eiternick, S.: Rapid Module Component Testing and Quantification of Performance Gains, Energy Procedia 55, pp. 369-373, (2014) DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.08.106
  • Turek, M.; Schneider, J.: Highly Flexible Simulation Environment for the Electrical Performance of PV-Modules. Proceedings of the 29th EU PVSEC, Sept. 22 - 26, 2014, Amsterdam (Netherlands), p 3308 - 3310, DOI: 10.4229/EUPVSEC20142014-5CV.2.33 

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  • Turek, M.; Lausch, D.: Solar Cell Performance Prediction Using Advanced Analysis Methods on Optical Images of as-cut Wafers, Energy Procedia 38, 190-198 (2013), dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.07.267.
  • Oswald, M.; Turek, M. and Schoenfelder, S.: Evaluation of Silicon Solar Cell Separation Techniques for Advanced Module Concepts, Proceedings of the 28th EU PVSEC, Sept. 30 - Oct 04, 2013, Paris (France), p 1807 - 1812, DOI 10.4229/28thEUPVSEC2013-2CV.4.51
  • Turek, M.; Friedrich, D. and Eiternick, S.: Spatially Resolved Mapping of Electrical Cell Parameters Based on Small Sized Solar Cells, Proceedings of the 28th EU PVSEC, Sept. 30 - Oct 04, 2013, Paris (France), p 1566-1569, DOI 10.4229/28thEUPVSEC2013-2CV.3.27

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  • Bartel, T.; Lauer, K.; Heuer, M.; Kaes, M.; Walerysiak, M.; Gibaja, F.; Lich, J.; Bauer, J.; Kirscht, F.: The Effect of Al and Fe Doping on Solar Cells Made from Compensated Silicon, Energy Procedia 27, 45-52 (2012), dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.07.027.
  • Turek, M.: Interplay of bulk and surface properties for steady-state measurements of minority carrier lifetimes, J. Appl. Phys. 111, 123703 (2012). Volltext auf Fraunhofer Publica
  • Turek, M.: Influence Of Bulk And Surface Properties On Measurable Steady-State Carrier-Lifetime, Energy Procedia 27, 33 (2012). dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.07.025
  • Turek, M.; Möller, Ch.; Lauer, K.: Investigation of Excess Charge Carrier Lifetime Measurements on Samples of Arbitrary Thickness. 27th EU PVSEC, Sept. 23-28, 2012, Frankfurt (Germany)
  • Koitzsch, M.; Lewke, D.; Kaule, F.; Oswald, M.; Schoenfelder, S.; Turek, M.; Büchel, A.; Zuehlke, H.-U.: Thermal Laser Separation – Damage-free and Kerfless Cutting of Wafers and Solar Cells. The 6th International Workshop on Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cells, October 8-11, 2012, Aix-les-Bains, France. Volltext auf Fraunhofer Publica

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  • Lich, J.; Turek, M.: Correlation Between Different Carrier-Lifetime Measurement, Methods For Si-Blocks, Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Halle (Saale), Germany, Energy Procedia 8, p 58–63, (2011)
  • Meyer, S.; Richter, S.; Turek, M.; Hagendorf, Ch.: Trace element analysis in crystalline silicon, Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Halle (Saale), Germany, 26th EU PVSEC, Hamburg (Germany), 5. Sept. - 9. Sept 2011
  • Lich, J.; Eckstein, M.; Turek, M.: Equivalence of carrier decay time (µPCD) and photoluminescence measurements on Si-blocks, Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Halle (Saale), Germany, 26th EU PVSEC, Hamburg (Germany), 5. Sept. - 9. Sept 2011
  • Lauer, K.; Walter, S.; Sidelnicov, A.; Herms, M.; Diez, S.; Ludwig, Y.; Turek, M.; Reißenweber, S.: Round-robin of excess charge carrier lifetime and decay time measurements on silicon blocks and adjacent surface passivated wafers. 26th EU PVSEC, Hamburg (Germany), 5. Sept. - 9. Sept 2011

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  • Oswald, M.; Turek, M.; Bagdahn, J.: Numerical Simulations of Thermo-Mechanical Stresses during the Casting of Multi-Crystalline Silicon Ingots, Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Halle (Saale), Germany, 11th EuroSimE, 26. Apr. 2010-27. Apr. 2010, Bordeaux
  • Lich, J.; Semmler, F.; Turek, M.: Comparison of carrier-lifetime measurement methods on mc-Si blocks, Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Halle (Saale), Germany, 25th EU PVSEC, Valencia (Spain), 6. Sept. 2010-10. Sept. 2010, BEST POSTER AWARD

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  • Turek, M.; Siewert, J. and Fabian, J., Magnetic circular dichroism in GaMnAs: Theoretical evidence for and against an impurity band, Phys. Rev. B 80, 161201(R) (2009)
  • Neumaier, D.; Turek, M.; Wurstbauer, U.; Vogl, A.; Utz, M.; Wegscheider, W. and Weiss, D., All-Electrical Measurement of the Density of States in (Ga,Mn) As Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 087203 (2009)

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